Diabetes mellitus, known as Diabetes, refers to a class of diseases that damage the way your body uses blood sugar (glucose). The function of glucose is vital for your health; it is an essential energy source for the cells that create tissues and muscles. Glucose is the main source of fuel for your brain.
There are different types of Diabetes, which can lead to excess sugar in the blood. Too much sugar in the blood can cause serious health problems.
Chronic Diabetic diseases include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Reversible diabetic diseases include prediabetes; this happens when the blood sugar level is higher than normal. However, it is not high enough to be classified as Diabetes. Gestational Diabetes occurs during pregnancy but can be cured once the baby is born.
Diabetes type 1 (once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes)
There's no exact cause for Type 1 Diabetes. The immune system fights off harmful bacteria or viruses, destroying the cells that make insulin in the pancreas, leaving your body with little or no insulin. Sugar accumulates in the bloodstream instead of being transported to your cells.
Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes
Cells become strong to the action of insulin, and the pancreas cannot make the insulin it needs. Causing sugar to build up in your bloodstream, instead of passing into your cells necessary for energy.
It is believed that its a consequence of various genetic and environmental factors. Being overweight is one of the causes of the development of type 2 diabetes, but not all overweight people have diabetes.
Prediabetes means you have a high sugar level in your blood. It is not yet high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes, but without a lifestyle change, adults and children with prediabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
In the period of pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to aid in pregnancy. Hormones allow your cells to become more resistant to insulin.
The pancreas generally produces less extra insulin to overcome this resistance. Despite this, sometimes the pancreas cannot keep up, causing insufficient glucose to reach your cells, remaining in your blood; this can cause gestational diabetes.
Symptoms vary depending on the type of Diabetes and the amount of rising sugar. In general, patients with prediabetes or type 2 Diabetes do not usually have symptoms at first. Symptoms in type 1 Diabetes usually appear quickly and are more severe.
Following are the most common symptoms of type 1 and type 2 Diabetes:
Irritability Frequent infections
Unexplained weight loss
Ketones in the urine
Type 1 Diabetes can appear at any age. However, it is most common during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 Diabetes is the most common Diabetes, it is more common in people over 40 years of age.
Cells of the immune system that cause damage
Geographic location, some countries, such as Sweden and Finland, have higher rates of type 1 diabetes
Age, as you get older, you have a high probability of developing it
Race and people of Asian, African, Hispanic, and Indian-American descent are at higher risk for it
Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels
Gestational diabetes, in case of having had gestational diabetes in pregnancy, the risk of having prediabetes and type 2 diabetes increases
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common disease, characterized by irregular menstrual periods, abundant hair growth and obesity
Following are some of the possible tests that the endocrinologist could perform:
Most of these tests are done in a Laboratory.
The treatment administered by your Endocrinologist varies depending on the type of diabetes you have. Common treatment options include:
Medicines to control blood sugar
Eat a healthy diet
Eat vegetables and fruits
Eat foods that are rich in fiber Reduce the consumption of saturated fat keep a healthy weight Exercise regularly
Insulin injections or an insulin pump, allow controlling the level of sugar in the blood, and the calculation of carbohydrates
Take the A1C test at least every two or three months
Bariatric surgery, people who suffer from obesity and with a body mass index greater than 35 can have good results with this type of surgery
Maintain a healthy diet
Do exercises recommend by your doctor
Control of blood sugar level
If it's necessary, the endocrinologist can prescribe insulin or oral medications
Maintain a healthy diet
Medicines, such as metformin
Medicines for Cholesterol control
When you have already been diagnosed with Diabetes, follow the treatment provided by your Endocrinologist. Living a healthy lifestyle can help you control this disease.
Some things to consider that could help improve the quality of life are:
Eat healthily, you can go to a Nutritionist to make a plan that suits your needs.
Go to your appointments with the Endocrinologist.
Keeping up with your vaccines
In the case of consuming alcohol, do it moderately
Do not smoke
Do regular exercise
Make your appointment with the Endocrinologist in case of presenting any of the characteristics and symptoms mentioned; or in case of detecting another abnormal symptom.When consulting your Endocrinologist, we recommend keeping a record of your pain with a detailed description of the symptoms, duration, and what you think triggered them. Mention any medications that you are taking.