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Pediatrics and Neonatology

Rubella

Rubella

ubella is an acute and contagious viral infection that mainly affects children and is characterized by a red skin rash. Rubella can be prevented with a vaccine. 


Rubella is transmitted through small droplets in the air when a person who is infected sneezes or coughs. It is important not to confuse Rubella with Measles because while both conditions have a red skin rash, the virus is different, and Rubella is not as severe or infectious as Measles.


Although Rubella is a mild systemic infectious disease in children and adults, when it occurs in a pregnant woman, it can be very serious, due to the so-called Congenital Rubella Syndrome.

 

Causes of Rubella

A person with a Rubella infection can spread the virus from 2 weeks before the rash appears to one week after it disappears. Rubella is already a rare disease because most children receive the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine at an early age.



Symptoms of Rubella


  • Mild fever (less than 39°C)

  • Nasal congestion

  • Nausea

  • Headaches

  • Redness of the eyes and mild conjunctivitis)

  • Red/pink rash extending from the face to the torso, arms, and legs

  • Swollen lymph nodes


The duration of infection and symptoms usually extends from 1 to 5 days.

Vaccine:


The Rubella vaccine is given in a combined form against Measles, Mumps, and Rubella and is called the MMR vaccine. Doctors recommend that children receive the first dose of this vaccine at an early age, between 12 and 15 months, and that they receive the second dose before starting school, between 4 and 6 years of age. In about 95% of cases, this dose of vaccination is usually sufficient to prevent infection in the future.

 

Prevention

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